Volume 10, Issue 33, Winter 2014, Page 7-329
Volume 10, Issue 33, Pages 7-49
revolutions in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, beginning with an important introduction about the elements of Turkish foreign policy under the AKP to determine the grounds upon which the Turkish positions toward these three revolutions and to understand these attitudes which differed from one revolution to another. The government of the Justice and Development Party has adopted three basic principles in construction of its attitudes toward the Arab revolutions: the adoption of the peoples slogans on freedom and democracy, rejection of any direct Western military intervention in the popular revolutions, and maintaining of the infrastructure of the countries in which the revolutions have occurred.
Volume 10, Issue 33, Pages 51-94
Facing the countries of the Maghreb are currently a range of internal and external challenges in its political, economic, security and social and strategy that makes integration and agglomeration imperative, especially after the revolution witnessed by both Libya and Tunisia, in addition to that seen in some of the countries in the region for political reforms and the mobility of a community, in addition to threats the pressures and the political and military interventions faced by foreign countries of the Maghreb; this is in addition to the current international trend-oriented, we find regional blocs regional spread in all the logic of the world, in developed countries and developing countries alike. All of these challenges imposed on the countries of the Maghreb collective action in order to achieve integration and agglomeration and activating the role of the Arab Maghreb Union, regionally and internationally.
Volume 10, Issue 33, Pages 95-136
The left - wing in Turkey 1980 - 2002 took a different path from what it was before the coup of September 12, 1980. At this research, we have shed light on the outline of the Turkish Left - wing during this important stage, which took multiple forms; from this point of view, the study has been divided into three axes, introduction and conclusion. The first axis represents the armed line; the (PKK), while the second axis represents the peaceful direction; the (DSP) 1980 - 2002. The third trend is the rest of the left - wing parties, which is entitled the(socialist and communist parties from 1980 to 2002). The study has come to a group of important conclusions concerning the history of the Turkish left - wing during this period.
Volume 10, Issue 33, Pages 137-198
Iraq's economy suffering of significant deterioration in thepublic service sector. The indicators have notimproved sincea decade. The study aims to analyse the nature ofthe deprivation ofthe different typesof public servicesin the provinces ofIraq.It focuses on the Nineveh Governorate as a case study. Estimates had shown thatthe effects ofits componentson the local economyand on thestandard of livingof the population as expected. Significant negative effects have affected the overall economic performance and propose improving the performance of publicservices sectortocover the needs ofthe total population as a requirementto proceed to successful economic development.
Volume 10, Issue 33, Pages 199-233
Financial markets had witnessed a transfer from traditional bank works represented by accepting deposits and lending into playing a role more comprehensive in states economies. Bank sector represents a huge part in Turkish financial system in economy mechanism. Most operations and activities for capital markets are made by banks. The paper aims at studying Turkish bank sector and how it is connected by the Turkish economy and how it is being affected by the world financial crisis in 2008 and the local financial crises happened in Turkish economy after 1980. The economic openness policy and structural fixation had been applied.
Although bank sector had been affected by local financial crises for the years 1994, 2001 but still the structural steps and legal procedures taken by the Turkish government in reforming both financial and bank systems after 2001 crisis which led to flourishing Turkey economically in the previous decade. This is clear in different economic indicators like the decrease of inflation, unemployment and the increase of economic growth. But the global financial crisis in 2008 affected the Turkish economy partially and succeeded in 2009 in getting rid of its negative effects.
The impact of the devaluation of the currency in balance of payments-Iran is a model for the period 1990-2011
Volume 10, Issue 33, Pages 235-259
The reduction of the exchange rate or currency devaluation, is the work carried out by Monetary Policy authorities deliberately to reduce the value of the local currency against foreign currency and this reduction will be to improve the balance of payments as well as other effects of movement of capital, the burden of foreign loans, the demand for cash balances as well as income and employment. Assumes Find that the Policy of devaluation can maintain the balance in the balance of payments through the changes that you make in rates of foreign exchange. Was the most important results, moral influence among the variable
Volume 10, Issue 33, Pages 261-284
Saudi Arabia was suffering economically during the 1930s and1940s. In the decades it started to gain adequate revenues after the principle of of profit sharing with ARAMCO. But Saudi economic break through was in the 1970s after oil prices adjusting as it began to implement the economic plans where it has paid an increasing attention
to non-oil sectors but the success was relative as the contribution of these sectors is still below the required level.
Saudi's economy is classified in the first grade among Arab countries for its material and moral potentials. Globally, Saudi's economy is considered one of the biggest (20) economies and the position (9) in terms of economic stability, also; it ranked (11) at the level of attracting investment countries and it owns(20) of the world's oil supply. Saudi per capita income average is about (78) Reals.
Volume 10, Issue 33, Pages 285-309
the Russian foreign policy during the rule of President Vladimir Putin (2000 - 2008), Witnessed, important changes such as the return of the Russian Federation strongly to play an active role in world affairs, emphasizing the importance of national security in the political discourse outside the Russian, and begin making political and military strategies to counter external threats potential,
At the same time can be referred to the efforts of President Putin in the field of economic reform and building a strong foundation of society.
Volume 10, Issue 33, Pages 311-329
After the uprisings and movements for change in a number of Arabic countries, which was called the (Arab Spring), have started, the security rate for Israel was no longer the same particularly as those uprisings have included a number of neighboring countries, especially Egypt. Israeli leaders have admitted that they were surprised by the strength, size, and timing of the uprisings. Accordingly, the Israeli reactions towards the Egyptian revolution were a mix of Israeli concern and fear that could lead to the collapse of the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty..