Volume 9, Issue 32, Autumn 2013, Page 9-460
Sustainable human development in the cooperation Council for the Arab states of the Gulf: A conternporary perspective
Volume 9, Issue 32, Pages 9-59
The present research accounts for the present situation of human development in the cooperation council Arab States of the Gulf (CCASG) which suffers from low performance compared by other developed and developing countries. There hare been contradictions and structural and spatial discrepancies especially if we view human welfare of the Arab people as participants and beneficiary from sustainable development.
The paper focuses upon four points:
1. The present situation of human development in the CCASG in the light of quantitative measures.
2. The resources of welfare and economic performance.
3. The Gulf environment in sustainable development perspective.
4. Recognizing the problematic situation and predicting the future.
The research concluded that the future of the CCASG is promising if territory witnesses a resurrectam of a nation.
Volume 9, Issue 32, Pages 61-94
Iran Foreign Policy towards Israel witnessed a radical change after the revolution of Iran in 1979 and become the opposite of what had been during the reign of Shah Mohammed Raza Bahlawi. This paper Sheds light on the on the nature of Iran Foreign Policy towards Israel and the paper is divided into three periods according to the changes. The First between 1979-1989, the second between 1989-2005 and the third between 2006-2009
The Attitude of The Two French Parties The Socialist Communist From A number of Arab Issues in French Press 1956-1973
Volume 9, Issue 32, Pages 95-140
The paper deals with these two French parties from a number of Arab Issues through the French press. The First Section in the paper deals with the Nationalization of Suez Canal, the triple attack on Egypt. The Second section deals with the attitudes of these two parties from the issues of Algeria through the French newspaper. The third section is talking about June war. The last section handles the attitude of both parties from October war 1973.
Volume 9, Issue 32, Pages 141-189
This research deals with the subject of Iraqi-Turkish relations during the period between (2002-2012), this period constitute a crucial stage in the history of relations between the two countries which had witnessed an internal developments in each of them, in Turkey, the coming of justice and Development Party (AKP) to power in late 2002 represents a new phase in the Turkey's contemporary history and in its internal and external policy, regional and international relations, while Iraq has offered the U.S. occupation in 2003, which affected in its political, security, economic situation and in its regional and international relations which reflected on the bilateral relations between the two states.
Volume 9, Issue 32, Pages 191-224
This study addresses the Jordanian relations - Iran between the years 1980-2003, as was variation in the level of development ranging from friendship and closeness to the tension and rupture due to contrast the two policies of Jordan - Iran with each other, as well as regional changes reflected on the relations between the two countries.
Volume 9, Issue 32, Pages 225-272
The Arab region, presently, has passed through political and economic changes that have resulted in changing of some Arab regimes as in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya; and still another regimes are going to go away by virtue of broad popular uprisings. Within this study, we observe the bearings of these transformations on the Arab Turkish relations through focusing over the Turkish governmental attitude, Turkish popular attitude in addition to the attitude of the Turkish parties; beside, analyzing the future of the Arab Turkish relations due to these changes.
Volume 9, Issue 32, Pages 273-314
This study is an attempt to study the phenomenon of political pluralism through a unique experience: a political system of the Islamic Republic of Iran, which reflects socio-cultural elements on the one hand، and historical-political experience on the other hand. So the problem of the study is based on socio-historical content through the following question: How can Iranian multiplicity turn into political pluralism?. on the basis of the above, the study is launches from a hypothesis stating a casual correlation between the availability of a number of data and achieving political pluralism. accordingly The study is divided into two sections, the first tackles the elements of political pluralism, while the second deals with aspects of political pluralism. The study approach Depends on the structural-functional approach that is based on a network of interactions between formal structures and informal structures contribute to the formation and functioning of political phenomenon.
Finally, the research concludes a number of obstacles and motivations for political pluralism in the Iranian regime, and that there is a decline of obstacles and a rise in motivations relatively but sporadic momentum.
The Role of International Organizations in Environmental Protection A Legal study in the United Nations’ Program (UNEP)
Volume 9, Issue 32, Pages 315-352
The protection of the environment is one of the topics that are included in the public international law as it is of concern to the international community.. and the environmental three issues of marine, land and air are of interest within legal studies to treat pollution, which affects the environment in general as for changes to natural or human life that causes damage to the environment and their direct or indirect impact on human life and health.
The research highlights the international efforts of the organizations of the United Nations through the role that they play in protecting the environment according to the UNEP program which aims at reducing any pollution that may infect it or to reduce pollution resulting from developments that affect the environment of all kinds
Foreign direct investment and its impact on growth and economic development of selected developing countries for the period 1990 – 2011
Volume 9, Issue 32, Pages 353-394
The foreign direct investment is considered the most important sources of financing investment projects in developing countries, and an "essential" element of the economic development strategy, and works to stimulate the process of economic and social development, and to provide more job opportunities and the transfer of technology and management developed techniques in host countries, as well as "for acceleration economic growth rates, and the level of the national economy investment is connected with capital expenditure in new projects in the sectors of public utilities and infrastructure, the trouble with search that the economies of most developing countries suffer from inadequate financial resources available to finance the investments required to achieve economic growth and development, in order to cover the scarcity of funding sources these states have to follow the strategies of foreign direct investment, and to achieve the goal of research the researcher used a time series for the period 1990 - 2011, group of developing countries have been selected depending on the method of descriptive and quantitative analysis to measure the impact through data and information collection from official sources and Internet web sites to reach a group of Results and proposals.
Volume 9, Issue 32, Pages 395-433
Preparing military strategies, testing, evaluating and reviewing them are considered operations in military - political leaderships for countries in general and for Federal Russia in particular. Russia had become the legal heir for the previous Soviet Union, one of the great power poles in the world throughout the years of Cold War (1945 -1991). The fall of Soviet Union Formed a heavy burden on the Russia military abilities, thus, Russia witnessed so many attempts to stop the consequences of that fall on the Russian Army trying to regain its place and abilities and in order to make the Russians able to practice the influence in regional and international situations.