Volume 9, Issue 31, Summer 2013, Page 9-386
Volume 9, Issue 31, Pages 9-22
Shykh Amjad Al- Zahawee is considered one of those whose who founded the Islamic movement in Iraq His a ctivity was not limited in religious field but also included practical aspects of life in Iraq and both Arab and Islamic worlds. Al- Zahawee is one of lightening and reform men and represented an important circle in the case of modern rise which started since Late of 19th century with efforts of Mr. Jamal Al- Din Al- Afghanee, Mr. Abdul- Rahman Kawakbee, Shykh Mohammed Abdah and Shykh Mahmood Shukree Al- Alousee.
So many wrote about him, talked about his autobiography, Culture and his political a ttitudes in different periods of Iraqi history. But his Islamic political thought didn't get an importance, thus, this study deals with his political thought and the poles in his religious activity
Volume 9, Issue 31, Pages 23-56
A number of Arab Countries in 2011 had witnessed revolts led to change political Systems and the attitudes Varied, Regarding the Russian attitude, Federal Russia had advocated its rejecting position to change the political system by external intervention. Russia advocated the political system of Syria Completely in the perspective of joint interests and alliance between both Countries.
Volume 9, Issue 31, Pages 57-110
The objectives of the revolution. the Tunisian economic and social the first place. before it turns in its final days of the Revolution to the political goals calls for a democratic system based on political pluralism and respect for human rights. and to judge the Tunisian revolution and evaluate its course in the coming years. it will be through the achievement of its goals in the first place despite the success of the Tunisian model in the political transition to democratic rule. and the country's transition from the case of legitimate harmonic to the case of popular legitimacy after the elections of October 23/ October 2011. the most important success. which is still waiting for the Tunisian people who produced this revolution. is achieve economic and social demands. which sacrificed for them.
Volume 9, Issue 31, Pages 111-148
The present research aims at identifying the levels of possibility to get access to the main airports in Iraq using GIS, so at to pinpoint the patterns of spatial interaction between the airports that represent the safeguards of flow into the heart of the economic regions in Iraq, due to the transportation services provided to the city inhabitants according to the distance and time that determine the level of satisfaction with traveling by air and using of airports. The research has concluded with the draw of the regions of possibility of access b multiple hierarchical levels high, medium and low. determine the population's decision to use the airports.. Accordingly, Iraq is lacking the obligatory planning to reinnovate and build airports that can guarantee the achievement of better levels of access possibility from the angle of spatial organization that represents the organic linking between geography and development.
Volume 9, Issue 31, Pages 149-177
OPEC is considered as one of the great petroleum countries in reserves, while the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) representing largest market in the global energy consumption, all of these reasons motivated the researcher to choose this subjects for his research. The capabilities of OPEC and OECD lead to many researchers have been presented in order to typify their conduction in the fields of production and consumption depending on theoretical and practical consensus concerted in demonstrating their role in the world oil market.
The importance of search came from the role of OPEC and OECD in the oil market from being the largest producer and consumer in the world oil market, The research problem is that the policies pursued by OECD in the shift away from oil consumption as the main source of energy sources, leading to fluctuations in the rates of utilization of production capacities of OPEC. The research aims to shows the impact of OPEC oil production on OECD consumption. The research supposes that OPEC production has had a dramatic impact on OECD consumption of crude oil, in this research it had used a model combines the theoretical and practical framework.
The search came in three chapters: the first one explain the evolution of OPEC and OECD, the second chapter identify the factors which they influencing the productive and consumption behavior of two organizations, Finally the Third chapter treated with the theoretical framework and experimental measurement of the impact of OPEC's production of crude oilon the oil consumpti on of OECD, The research found that the world price of crude oil had no any significant effect on the
Volume 9, Issue 31, Pages 179-206
The Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan, one of the movements of political Islam that believes in the political process through their active participation in the political institutions of official and parliamentary elections taking place in Jordan from time to time, and aims of the Muslim Brotherhood through its activity to resume Islamic life through advocacy and reform and seek to access to power peacefully and gradually to application programs that include various aspects of life in the Jordanian society.
Volume 9, Issue 31, Pages 207-231
The Kurdish question in Turkey is considered one of the most significant problems till new; which constitutes a basic problem within the Turkish internal policy. It emerged clearly after establishment of the Turkish republic in 1923 and the measures that had been taken by Mustupha Kemel Ataturk that came upon the non-Turkish nationalities as renouncing identity, language and culture in trying to melt them within the Turkish nationality. However, the unified attitude by the Turkish governments toward this issue, but there are relative differences in attitudes among the Turkish political parties; where while the national and secular parties were strict towards this issue, the parties of Islamic trends show some kind of flexibility towards it, since they believe in the Kurdish culture rights and the right of Kurds to maintain their tradition and to speak and study in their language, although, most of Islamic parties were unable to take practical measures regarding that.
Volume 9, Issue 31, Pages 233-266
Feftist trend in Turkey, regarded as one of the currents which polarized a variety of social sections of the Turkish Society including workers, peasants educated, and joaitnalists … etc.
This research addressed, important sides of the leftist current in Turkey, 1980 -1923. The research has been divided to three axises the first dealt with the leftlist current before 1923 chistorical outlook, where as the second axis dealt with the leftist current since the establishment of the Turkish republic, till the coupe de etat 1960, while the the third axes clarified the sraus of the leftist current since 1960 coupe de etat till 12.sep, 1980 coupe de etat. Indicating the most important leftist socialit parties, and leftist Kardish Organizations.
Volume 9, Issue 31, Pages 267-287
Ship building was the most economic a activities of Arab Gulf before exploring oil and the 4th and 5th decades of 20th century Separated between two economic ages in the region. They are the age of diving looking for pearls and the oil age being considered the main resource for economy at present. This is true for ship building which began to collapse after changes taken place upon the Gulf society.
People in Arab Gulf were famous in crafts connected with Sea and these crafts represent a cultural heritage and families in the Gulf took its names. Their products express the art of ship building for years and it is necessary in keeping this sort of craft
Volume 9, Issue 31, Pages 289-328
Regional security challenges are considered the most important factors affecting in the present and the future of Iraqi's relations with its neighboring states general and Turkey in particular. Security dimension in regional and international relations had become the most effective factor reaching the region into dangerous degree which made the political movement unable to face the security positions. In this view, we can define four cases which may threaten the joint regional security between Iraq and Turkey. They are the existence of PKK north of Iraq, the problem of sharing water of Tigris and Euphrates, the Struggle in Syria and finally the development of Nuclear program of Iran and its consequences on the region's security.
Volume 9, Issue 31, Pages 329-386
The paper deals with the history of Iran. Israel relations from diplomatic, political and aspect for the period 1948-1979. the relations have got political and economic aims in the area. After the recognition of government of Iran in the state of Israel in March 1950, these relations have been enlarged greatly in all aspects and Iran has become the lung for Israel to breath as well as the Israeli investments in Iran, on the other side, Iran has interested from the Oil exports to Israel, the recognition of Israel by Iran was the basic entry to establish good relations officially the Jews in Iran were the gate to organize good ties especially agencies and Jewish schools as will as the Masonic gatherings. These have branches in Iran. They have participated from its in setting up relations between both pants in the consideration that the history of the Jews in Iran returns book to long historical periods before Christ and the periods that follow.