Volume 9, Issue 30, Spring 2013, Page 9-357
Volume 9, Issue 30, Pages 9-28
When Iwrote my essay on "The New Al – Thaqafa Journal" and I Prepare my self to write a bout its rear "Al – Thaqafa Journal" issued by Dr. Salah Khales which appeared in Baghdad January 1971. The journal of the progressive Scientific Thought as in its introduction and its editor in chief D.r. Salah Khales and editing secretary Dr. Suad Mohammed Khadir. Its office was in Bagdad, Iraq – Al – Tahreer Square – Faruk Hashim Building, Tel.No. 84811. The last issue was on February 1988 and during the year 1971 – 1988, it stopped for three years from 1984 till 1987. The reason was Dar Al – Huryah for printing prevented the journal from providing it with paper due to Iraq – Iran War. The total of issuing was 180 issues. This Study deals with the history of the journal and how it affected the contemporary cultural life in Iraq.
Volume 9, Issue 30, Pages 29-70
Exhausted duality's contradictory Sudan and its people, and become elites powerless in the face of these controversial: democracy, dictatorship, war and peace, unity and separation, margin and center, the dialectical historical evolved with the advent of his own contemporary, which is characterized by dimension centers provinces known as the (margin) for capital, which is the (center) President of the polarization of political and government.
perhaps the first expression of the nature of this relationship contrasting volatile unstable, the armed insurgency in the province of the south in1955, then spread later rebellions to other regions like: Alpajh, Nubia and the Eastern Sudan and Darfur, and was one of the most prominent causes, conflict regions around the power (the margin and the center), which is trying this research declare it by tracking the historical dimension of the relationship dialectic which dominated the relationship between the authority of the government and the regions, and the pursuit of the rebels in some of these regions to obtain new types of relationship between their territories Center, in which different views on the identification of its borders and frameworks in Sudan.
Volume 9, Issue 30, Pages 71-104
This Study explains the nature of Turksh-Italian relationship during (1828-1938). Which Witnessed some improvement through the signing aribitration neutrality friendship agreement in 30 ,May, 1928,followed by commercial agreement in April,1934, But this situation didn't continue for a long time, because of the Italian expansion ambitions in the eastern regions of Mediterranean Sea especially the south western Parts of Turkey. Also Italy didn’t agree the invitatition for participating in an international conference to review the Turkish straits problem.
Volume 9, Issue 30, Pages 105-129
The Arab League emerged in 1940s in order to achieve unity among Arab states. Its tried to deal with political reform, economic and other contemporay issues on the arab arena. However, its role in the political reform was weak and it did not develop, a matter that made it accused of being unable to achieve political reform in the Arab states, particularly having faced many problems, challenges, and issuse, some of which are connected to its Charter, and other with the way it achieves political reform.
The research sheds light on the role of the Arab League in achieving political reform through tackling beginnings of the Arab League establishment and the concept of reform political and its role in achieving it.
The research has come up with several conclusions the most important of which is that the League has a weak role in achieving political reform due to the defects that its charter include and the challenges facing it, in particular offer the Arab Spring Revolutions, a matter that wade it un able of making the appropriate decisions of face an solve such challenges.
Assess the impact of components of the Commodity Structure of Foreign Trade in The economic growth of Turkey for the period (1990 - 2009)
Volume 9, Issue 30, Pages 131-162
Showed many of the economic studies that the variables structure of foreign trade (exports and imports) with the impact of the gross domestic product and move the economic growth of a State، and private trade in industrial goods because they contribute to value-added production, and its importance to developed and developing countries, and take advantage of the economic development process, aimed at search to identify the components of Commodity Structure of Foreign Trade of Turkey and to clarify their impact on the GDP time series is twenty years old. In order to achieve the goal, was based on the assumption that the components of the structure of commodity exports and imports of Turkey to influence evident in the GDP, and the efforts made by Turkey to join the European Union led to a change in the directions of Turkish foreign trade, in order to reach the goal of the research and prove his hypothesis, The study was conducted using a quantitative methodology, by identifying the features of the evolution of the Turkish economy, and classification of Commodity Structure of Foreign Trade and its relationship to economic growth, were also analyzed trends in the evolution of Turkish foreign trade for the period (1990-2009) and the development trends of components of the structure of commodity exports and imports of Turkey, as well as trends geographical distribution of foreign trade of Turkey during the study period.
The study found that intermediate and consumer goods the most important paragraphs in the Commodity Structure of Turkish exports during the period of study, as well as capital goods and other commodities, while the intermediate and capital goods the most important paragraphs in the Commodity Structure of imports, as well as consumer goods and other goods.
Key words: commodity structure, exports and imports, gross domestic product, capital goods, intermediate goods, consumer goods.
Volume 9, Issue 30, Pages 163-188
Although economic and social and political enormous that included most countries of the world, there is still poverty continue within the humanitarian problem. For that reasons, the most researchers, intellectuals, economists, sociologists and politicians are great attention for causes of spread and working to stopping and limit of growth it. For obtain that, the use of appropriate economic policies and which constitute fiscal policy one the most important and which exert their effects which through their effects in the variables of economic growth and variation in the distribution of income. The objective of this study is to try to clarify the role of fiscal policy which included the expenditure and returnals policies to influence in poverty in developing countries. We are use of econometrics analysis, relying on data variables used in the study. The study explain the weak fiscal policy and main tools in positive impact in poverty rates in developing countries.
Volume 9, Issue 30, Pages 189-220
The concept of European security witnessed variables mission that began since the Westphalia, which established a new concept in international relations was based on the sovereignty of States, and founded the balance of power, and played the European countries a key role in international security, when Europe was controlled by the balance of world powers until the outbreak of World War II, but global balance of power after the war moved from the European continent to the outside, and even became a European security, however, the two Soviet and American cold War period, and then took another twist on the European Security after the Cold War, representing the transition from the world when he was European security means security of international to the continental European security is no longer refers to international security, the concept of the sovereignty of States, founded by the Conference of Westphalia "thing" of the past.
There is a paradox in European thought on this issue, after the First World War began to Europe is looking to get rid of its recent past based on the glorification of force and arms, but after the American hegemony, seems more nostalgic to look for defensive capabilities confirming their presence in the vision of twenty-first century.
Volume 9, Issue 30, Pages 221-246
The year 2011 was the decisive time between the silence and submission of Arab people toward deteriorating situations and their uprisings to regain their looted rights. Tunisia was the first as its young people revolted against Zein AL-Abdeen Bin Ali who wanted to stay until the day of death. Then, the revolution of Egypt come which may be considered the most important since Egypt was always the inspirer for Arab people in all fields. As for Libyan uprising, the harsh response by Muwamar AL-Qaddafi was the reason to change the revolution from peaceful to armed one, beside that it was with an international intervention. While, the result of the Syrian revolution is still not definite, but history would not go backwards. The Yemen revolution was alittle different, especially after Saudi-Gulf intervention which safed a way out for the former president Ali Abdullah Salih due to the Yemeni direct impact on Gulf states. With regards to the attitude of the USA toward Arab revolution, the American administration interacted with the developments but could not direct them.
Volume 9, Issue 30, Pages 247-274
This research marked: (U.S. limitative in Turkish politics towards the Arab region from 2001-2010) represents attempt to track and study and analyze the impact of the United States on Turkish foreign policy toward the Arab region, both in terms of the reasons for this effect size, or the extent to which can be up to him, as well as linkage developments in the Middle East in particular and global developments in general .
Has been divided this research to several sections dealt with through Turkey's strategic importance in American foreign policy, and the importance of the United States of America from the perspective of Turkish, also dealt to the most important events that have affected the relationship between the two sides, such as the events of 11 September 2001, and the invasion of Iraq , and the impact of these events on the size and effectiveness of the U.S. limitative in the Turkish foreign policy.
Volume 9, Issue 30, Pages 275-299
Different from the monarchy in Saudi Arabia for the rest of the monarchies in the world, as different from the Islamic Republic of Iran from the rest of republican regimes in the world, concentrated authorities in all its forms (executive-legislative-judicial), however, one person is the guardian jurist Supreme Leader, a position that there is only in Iran, while based three authorities in the Saudi political system, however, the king, who Atoloh brothers, sons of Abdul Aziz, in order of age, so it is distinct from the rest of the monarchies, and acquires the regimes paramount importance and therefore the position of the religious establishment in both countries.
Volume 9, Issue 30, Pages 301-328
It is certain certainly democracy is not only institutions and procedures, but also it based on a political culture that includes a system of values and ideas that dedicate the practice of democracy, we can say that the Arab revolutions was a surprise and that the majority of Arab countries are not ready for entitlement to political of this size, which created systems political pluralism without getting into internal conflicts and political tension .So, the challenge that facing these systems today, is not builti by democracy as complete and ready system, but the be yinnig of the conversion process and transition inevitably lead to democracy , peaceful, chosen and consciously structured that will make it avoid avert bloody conflicts and explosions and internal and external wars.
Volume 9, Issue 30, Pages 301-357
Many factors determined the relation between the Congress and the White House, such as the relation between the republican and the democratic parties who established rules of political actions practicing, and then the lobbies that reflect economic, political and religious interests, Also human rights groups and environment defenders. May be the most important factor is the constitution which granted the Congress and the president variable responsibilities and authorities in foreign relations field, especially war waging. Often, there were disputations about were the war declaration decision must start?
The American constitution authorized the president to wage war as the supreme commander of military forces, whereas the Congress is authorized to declare and finance war. Therefore the relation between the two parts relating the foreign causes is distinguished with a type of relative balance, so connection between the president and the Congress resolutions was the distinctive mark