Volume 8, Issue 28, Autumn 2012, Page 9-378
Volume 8, Issue 28, Pages 16-53
The question of the Arab-Israeli conflict has received the attention of the regional states according to the interests of these states in regard to that conflict; thus, this research sheds light on the Iranian attitude toward the Arab – Israeli conflict since the outbreak of the Iranian revolution in 1979 until 2009 and the variables of this question at the time of this research, also the nature of Iran's attitudes toward this conflict and their reflection upon it.
Volume 8, Issue 28, Pages 54-80
This study tackles the Turkish role in the negotiation between Syria &Israel (2004- 2009) ،which the U.S used to play since 1991. As a result of progress in bilateral relations between Turkey and Syria due to the foreign attitudes of the Developme nt & Justice Party in Turkey since the advent of 2003, Turkey tries to push the ceased peaceful efforts between Syria Isrel through the Turkish interactive role in the Middle East and its obvious international & regional rising as apivotal state with strategic importance.
Assessing the Role of Arab Tourism in the Economic and Human Development Comparative Study on Global Level
Volume 8, Issue 28, Pages 81-126
Study aims to “assess the role of Arab tourism in economic and human development as a group alone and together with the global, in a similar comparative estimates”. The focus of the analysis will be on determining the difference between both groups in performance and directions. Also with their interior performance and with the other global aggregates. The work has supposed that “concrete contribution of the Arab tourism sector in developing most economies is modest, owing that to the state failure in developing the tourism sector itself and to a lack of investment for individuals in.”
The study tried: to address the relationship of tourism development and economic development; to find how regionally to develop it, besides the competitiveness indicators of Arabic travel and tourism; to estimate the impact of tourism on economic and human development; to estimate tourism movement with economic performance and human development; and to estimate the global relations between tourism performance with economic and human development.
The results have confirmed the importance of the tourism sector at the Arab economies, for both economic development and human development, but hadn't positive impact to contribute economic growth before an improvement of per capita GDP by 1.17%, and before somewhat improve in the human development indicators by 2.17%. While the international reality is best, uncertain statistical significance of many effects were so important on the economic performance and human development. These effects refer to: the importance of tourism competitiveness, human capital (education scale); and the gap of performance - human development. In fact, their interactions and estimates were completely settled in the simple and multiple relations. The Arab economies, in general, and particular in many, as Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Egypt have the opportunity for tourism industry and to support it as an important source for growth and progress. Cases with the education a much better.
Volume 8, Issue 28, Pages 127-172
The events of October / October 1988, made Algeria locked in a unique experience in the face of opposition, armed or unarmed, and gave the authority of the Algerian special force in the face of any emergency situation, and given the experience the ability to know whether the situation is appropriate to make some concessions, or is it allowed to take stance.
And live the Algerian government is currently at a crossroads, especially in light of the great transformations that take place in the Arab world. Either verify that the demands of the Algerian people and succeed in the implementation of Five-Year Plan (2010-2014) and thus ensuring the survival. Or fail to meet the demands of the people and then to leave it in a peaceful way or the other way.
Volume 8, Issue 28, Pages 173-194
The Turkish – Isreal relations, espically after the military Isreali-Turkish agreement in 1996, raised many questions by the researchers and specialists; and this alliance was against whom? The research is composed of an introduction, two subjects, and conclusion.
The First subject is about the Turkish - Isreal relations(historical preamble), and indicated to the historical stages of these relations. While the second subject treated with Turkish-Isreal relations during the period of the AKP; and covered first the Turkish - Isreal relations before Davos and second talked about the conference of Davos and tensions in relations between Turkey and Isreali; and then got to a conclusion that explains the mutual interests and strong relations between Turkey and Isreal.
Volume 8, Issue 28, Pages 195-224
Relations have witnessed Iraqi-Jordanian period of U.S. occupation of Iraq, a remarkable development, contributed to the development of many of the political facts, prompting observers and political analysts to watch Mastúl to those relationships in light of fears of files are political took to emerge with the end of U.S. occupation of Iraq, and these files, security file, which took haunts decision-makers in both countries who seek to transit their relationship towards the further development and cooperation to maintain security and stability, which therefore constitutes a strategic depth for Iraq and Jordan alike
Volume 8, Issue 28, Pages 225-277
This paper is meant to shed light on the Jordanian election laws and their impact on the political reformation process from 1989 up to the present time. By so doing, an attempt has been made to thoroughly review the most salient election laws issued during this period with special emphasis on their positive as well as negative aspects which, in turn, have affected the political reformation process in Jordan. Results show that the seven laws issued during this phase included numerous positive aspects, which participated in the fulfillment of a real political reformation process. Among others, such positive aspects include the increase of the number of representatives (from 80-120), increase of the number of women quota seats, and decrease the age of the voters to 18 (instead of 19 years old), the reliance on the ID cards issued by the Civil Status Department instead of the election cards previously used. It has been apparent that the decrease of the elector’s age enabled more young people to participate in the election process. Furthermore, the use of the ID card has also made it easy for voters to participate in the election processes.
Results have also shown a number of negative aspects, which can be summarized as follows. First, the one-man-one-vote system, which is still in effect, replaced the broad national choices by narrow regional, tribal and sects’ loyalties. Second, the seats of the Lower House are distributed based on governorates and geographical areas instead of the number of population, a feature that has consistently led to an apparent imbalance in the real representation of the population. A number of recommendations have been proposed by the researchers emphasizing the constitutionality, legality and legitimacy of the election laws, which, in turn, have led to the systemization and development of the political reformation process in Jordan.
Volume 8, Issue 28, Pages 278-299
The global trend towards knowledge economies that depend on the basis of modern technologies and best use of economic resources led to a focus on knowledge investment to raise the level of welfare, as these technologies became a means of survival and a tool cannot be dispensed with under the open world depends on the competitiveness ability. The research aims to identify the contents of the Cognitive Intelligence and the most important trends in e-learning in the countries of the sample, and will adopt descriptive analysis approach for the style of trends in the Arab and international experiences from their original sources, as well as research articles, and Arabic and foreign books, which will be a set of conclusions and proposals.
Volume 8, Issue 28, Pages 301-351
In front of the Arabian Gulf States Bahrain Kingdom is different, characterized political instability, Although there are No so many changes had taken place on the structure of political system in Bahrain, there are no any changes had done on the mechanism of political-Decision making Since the independence of Bahrain Kingdom on 1971. the power is concentrated in the hand of Amair till Sheikh Hamad Bin Salman Al-Khalifa had taken this power in1999 in which the state had witnessed so many reform. Specially after change the political regime from Emara to kingdom according to new constitution 2002, This has been reflected on all aspects of state. Specially the citizen in Bahrain had the good income. This is support the ability of the political decision maker to do the best, and reduce the political errors ,especially at the foreign policy.
Volume 8, Issue 28, Pages 353-378
The disintegration of the Soviet Union leave , a political vacuum and security in the region of Central Asia, at a time when the Islamic republics of the newly independent unprepared for independence, did not have the structures and experiences essential to enable them to shoulder the burdens of the modern state, making it vulnerable to competing countries, a global, regional, sought to attract more or less for influence on its future political and the pattern of international relations, and these competitions implicit competition between Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Iran, which Tstkhaddman the religious factor to attract these republics in Central Asia. Being the vying for the leadership of the Muslim world. And took the Saudi-Iranian rivalry towards the republics of Central Asia, methods, and many activities are focused in working to promote religious and cultural relations as well as economic and political support of these republics.