Volume 8, Issue 25, Winter 2012, Page 9-398
Volume 8, Issue 25, Pages 9-24
Labor movement in Iraq is related to the developments happened since late of 19th century, with regards to Ottoman reforms and modernization movement both in Ottoman Empire and the Iraqi provinces related to it and how such reforms had its effects on economic, social and political fields in changing the relationship between shykhs of tribes and peasants. What has weakened this relationship is the integration of Iraq’s economy with the capital market and transformed it into market economy. The emergence of oil, expanding rail – roads and military equipments in addition to the rise of Iraqi Labor class in which it had become able in 1929 to organize for itself an Iraqi society for private works. Workers organizations had developed but unfortunately, they were the victom of struggles within the political powers and thus they were far from practicing their professionals and trade unions. This study is following up this topic and wish that Labors in Iraq may take the initiative in developing their organizations.,…
Volume 8, Issue 25, Pages 25-58
Many sanctions were imposed, since 1979, on Iran including one-sided American and European sanctions and also International as those imposed by the UNSC. Sanctions imposition reasons were varied; some due to Iran's foreign policy after 1979; some because of its nuclear program; and others as for human rights issues in Iran.The implications of these sanctions became different such as political sanctions regarding breaking off or freezing relations and also banning some officials from traveling abroad; other were economic sanctions involved banks, business sector and others. The last sanctions were military that enclosed export ban concerning weapons and nuclear technologies to Iran. The sanctions especially the international one have influenced Iran's economy and community directly
Volume 8, Issue 25, Pages 59-85
This paper studies the nature of the political & economic relations, which prevailed between Iraq & Turkey after the Iraqi General elections in January, 2005 until 2010. These relations witnessed a great deal of development, especially after Turkey reconsidered its intervening policy in the Iraqi internal affairs; they reached the ultimate level by signing the joint political Declaration Agreement in July 10, 2008, which is regarded as a beginning of a new era for bilateral relations, according to which the supreme strategic cooperation Council between the two countries has been established.
Volume 8, Issue 25, Pages 87-121
تضمن البحث البنية السياسية للنظام التركي الحالي الذي تمثله حكومة حزب العدالة والتنمية التي وفرت عبر تجربتها الأولى (2002-2007) أسساً داخلية قوية لممارسة دور إقليمي مهم وفاعل في المنطقة، وهو ما يؤشر بوضوح إلى وجود توجهات جديدة في السياسة الخارجية التركية ذات مرجعية وطنية.
يحلل هذا البحث الاستراتيجية التي تبنتها حكومة حزب العدالة والتنمية في سياستها الخارجية، ومدى استجابتها للمتغيرات الإقليمية وكيف تفاعلت معها وماهية الأدوار والوساطات التي مارستها في الأزمات الإقليمية التالية:
1. تطورات الأوضاع في العراق
2. الوساطة بين سوريا وإسرائيل
3. الأزمة الفلسطينية والحوار بين فتح وحماس
4. الأزمة اللبنانية
5. البرنامج النووي الإيراني
6. الحرب الجورجية-الروسية في القوقاز
Volume 8, Issue 25, Pages 123-146
Taking care with environment issues & their connection with sustainable development has come to add a new impulsion to the controversy regarding state intervention in the shadow of globalization specially after market globalization had faced some of the failure which is represented by the increase of social costs, non-ability of competition to achieve economic efficiency & exhaustion of economic contents for the environment, spread of pollution & environmental dissolution in developing economies which suffer from weakness in its environmental defenses. This has led to the emphasis of importance of state intervention to protect environment & to ensure the right of the current generation & the rights of the coming generations of the newly & non-newly resources as well as adapting an effective environmental policy to achieve sustainable development, asking the United Nations to present criteria to protect the environment & obliging all states to apply this policy as well as punishment should be taken against those who do not follow throughout a judicial court specialized for environment.
Volume 8, Issue 25, Pages 147-182
The study aims to review the motives of Turkish accession to the European Union, and analysis of backgrounds fear and hesitation in spite of the European structural reforms undertaken by Turkey on its economic, constitutional and judiciary and a halt to European standards. The study seeks to shed light on the implications of this frequency on the behavior of Turkey towards the outer region. The study relied on the following courses:
Descriptive analytical method, and the behavioral approach, and a realistic approach.
The Major Points of the study, are:
- Motives and factors from which Turkey for full membership in the European Union in both its internal and external.
- Wallpapers of the European position.
- The Effect of the European position on the policy of AKP and Regional Development.
Volume 8, Issue 25, Pages 183-228
It is believed during the previous Century that water resources are unlimited natural resources and inexhaustible which could be used without any legislative controls. Thus, waters occupied a secondary role in development processes which witnessed a huge and speed growth during the 2nd half the 20th century and to create water crises in so many regions in the Arab Homeland. This has led to a clear change in concepts related to water resources and being known that these resources are limited factors affecting both economic and social growth.
At present, states of Arab Maghreb suffer from sever water crisis due to natural circumstances represented by shortage of rain fall , the misuse of these resources and the increase of population in addition to economic, environmental and technical factors.
Volume 8, Issue 25, Pages 229-270
The research tackles in it’s content the reality of Iranian capabilities to get nuclear technology in both Royal and republic Eras and the main impulses of Iran to hold the nuclear choice. Since the royal ere , Iran has made great efforts in building its under program ,establishing nuclear power station, then the technical development which have taken place during the reign by making agreements with some Asian and European states.
These agreement have produced other nuclear reactors in Iran and technical Iranian cadres specialized in the field of nuclear sciences inside these states. This will give an idea for the structure, growth and dimensions nuclear program of Iran at the present time.
Volume 8, Issue 25, Pages 271-292
Russia faced serious challenges after the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, most notably the protection of national security and restore its status as a superpower, as well as that Russian society was suffering and the economic situation was too bad.
Openness to the West, one of the choices adopted by the political elite of Russia's return to the pattern of international, and the hopes of the Russian held on the West, great, for it was the wishes of Western non-return of Russians thought authoritarian, too great, but the mutual concerns between them, still the greatest
Volume 8, Issue 25, Pages 293-326
The Collapse of The Soviet Union lead to anew regional zone represented by the independent republics in the Central Asia these republics starts to suffer from the security emptiness and the anxiety of their governing regimes due to the immaturity of their security, economic and political experiences. these countries also witnessed an Islamic awakening because of numerous internal and foreign factors. this awakening is embodied by the rise of religious and political movements adopted the principle of establishing Islamic control based on the Islamic law. these movement follow certain strategies which are varied to by either political or militant. this leads to opposing reactions on the part of the leading political members which, in thin, is obliged to confront these movements first by using force and secondly making regional alliances to confront these movements.
At the beginning this paper attempied to show the political role of Islam among the people of Central Asia and to investigate the foreign and internal factors which lead to the rise of these Islamic movements, in the region. the paper then tackles the most remarkable Islamic movements, in both Tajakstan and Uzbekstan beside the Islamic movements which established for itselves certain bases many countries of the region. the paper concluded in showing the role of these movements in recasting the security arrangements of the countries in Central Asia
The problematic conciliation between the democratic conversion and the traditional inherited of the Moroccan political system
Volume 8, Issue 25, Pages 327-362
The reality of the contemporary Moroccan political system today is determined depending on three fundamental considerations:religion. Moroccan fraditions and the stage demand. Emerging from these three considerations, we find three types of legislation: the historic source, norm, the written constitution and each type is coming with certain "constitutional" field, So, the constitution is made to achieve the process of formulation to these types, but inspite of that there is agreat contradiction among the Islamic and historic thoughtsthat represented by believers principality in chapter 19 of Moroccan contitution, and the iden that the honorable ancestry of the King who belong himself the munificent messenger. The what is called (traditional), and throgh the who try to combine this tradition by modernity through the conttitution and the guoted thoughts from the Western constitution specially the Frenchone, that- what is the political, intellectual and ideological link constitutionally unstable and non- balanced.
Volume 8, Issue 25, Pages 363-398
As the electoral processes is essential to build democracy but rather a means or translated and embody the meaning of the participation of the people in power, and its ability to change the acceptable and desired by the legal channels and logic and the correct legal method.
Perhaps that concept is the embodiment of what is happening in most countries of the world, past and present, and here is growing and the means of the contribution of the people in power, deemed the election mechanism the main contribution to the people in politics, defended the electoral process, including that there is the impossibility in the application of direct democracy that the people managing its own political affairs directly without the intervention of a second party has therefore become a semi-direct democracy and representative democracy are applied in the two systems by the ideology of each state and therefore need to be elected by the people of his representative in the exercise of power. The face of the electoral process constraints and obstacles and ballasts fail this process, or empty it of content or limit their effectiveness and the practice of democracy is mounted and a transparent and fair, and limit what can be said that there is the responsibility of rulers to voters who can vote to reject a person or remove him from office, the size of the electorate depends the application of universal suffrage, and notes that the ruling classes have always put the restrictions and obstacles to the many categories of citizens to withhold their vote and thus reduce the size of the electorate to a minimum.