ردمد المطبوع (Print ISSN): 1813-4610

ردمد الإلكترونيّ (Online ISSN): 2664-2948

السنة 7, العدد 19

السنة 7، العدد 19، الصیف 2010، الصفحة 9-440


Research Paper

أهمیة الوسطیة ومنهج الاستقرار فی عالم متغیر

ابراهیم خلیل العلاف

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 9-25
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.32443

الوسطیة التی نقصد فی البحث، لیست تسلیما بالواقع، وإنما هی القدرة على التعامل مع الواقع لتغییره ولیست القدرة على التکیف مع الواقع دون تغییره. ومما یعطی الوسطیة، والدعوة إلى منهج الاستقرار أهمیة، أن الوسطیة ترفض الخضوع للأجنبی. کما أنها ترفض واقع التخلف، والتجزئة لان ذلک تضییع للحقوق وتفریطا بها. کما أن الوسطیة تؤمن بالتدرج، واقتراح البدائل، وعدم الاکتفاء بالنوایا الصادقة فی الإصلاح، وإنما العمل المتواصل على تقدیم النماذج الصالحة. إنها حالة من التوازن بین التشدد والشذوذ من جهة، والتهاون والتقصیر من جهة ثانیة. وهی منهج فی الحیاة، وفی العمل السیاسی وفی التعامل مع الآخرین، والوسطیة کتیار، ممتد عبر التاریخ، لیس ولید حالة تاریخیة واجتماعیة راهنة، وإنما هو نتاج لحرکة التجدید. والوسطیة بهکذا مفهوم لاتلجأ إلى طریق العنف فی التغییر الداخلی، لکنها تبرر المقاومة لقوى الاحتلال والهیمنة الخارجیة.ویقینا إن الوسطیة، إذا ما انتهجت، فأنها ستؤدی إلى الاستقرار السیاسی، والاجتماعی، فلا تنمیة بدون استقرار، ولا استقرار بدون وسطیة. وکما هو معروف فأن من معاییر الاستقرار السیاسی والاجتماعی ازدیاد فرص الانفتاح السیاسی، والدیموقراطیة المقترنین بالاعتدال فی المواقف والسلوکیات، فالفکر الوسطی یؤمن بالآخر ولا یرفضه ویسعى من اجل تأمین نقاط التقاء مع الآخرین. ومن ثمار الوسطیة زرع الثقة بین أبناء البلد الواحد وهذا مما یشیع حالة من المودة، وبناء علاقات اجتماعیة ایجابیة، والابتعاد عن التعصب والحقد وهذه تساعد فی بناء المجتمع وتحقیق حالة من الاستقرار التی تهیئ المجال للتفاعل الاجتماعی الصحیح وإحراز اکبر قدر من المنجزات المفیدة.ویتساءل البحث عن، من هم المؤهلین فی مجتمعنا لقیادة منهج الوسطیة، والسعی باتجاه تحقیق الاستقرار، والسلم الاجتماعی، والتنمیة المستدامة؟ ونقول– وبکل صراحة– إنهم أبناء الطبقة الوسطى.. هذه الطبقة التی باتت تواجه فی عالمنا العربی الذوبان، والانهیار، والتفکک نتیجة استقطاب المجتمع إلى(قلة یملکون کل شیء)، و(کثرة لاتملک شیئا).

Cultural development in the Arab World (Cultural development and the Arab political system)

Rawa Zeki Younis yihyia AL tawel

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 27-68
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.32472

To the extent that development of human vision or centered on the rights and aspiring to strengthen the position of the individual, freedom and creative abilities have to be a greater need to increase investment in culture and transfer of development itself to the cultural development. And vice versa, as far as deny development of man and focus on its profit-making business or build military might and superiority which eliminated the relative importance of culture and less interest in them and behind the values of reason and freedom and peace.

Taha Younis Hummadi

Taha Younis Hummadi

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 69-93
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.32490

ambitious plans and developing programs. They resorted to international financial markets to borrow because of rarity of local financial resources for most of these countries. The theoretical justification was that external borrowing enhanced local saving.
Until earlier of 1970s, the external debts of developing countries especially some Arab ones were few or relatively few. The debts were primarily (a formal phenomenon) and most debtors were foreign governments and international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund. The World Bank and regional developing banks. Most loans were granted as privilege (low interest), then they expanded to include many aspects. The intermediated and capital goods imports increased as well. That is why, the external indebtedness size during the above period was distinguished by the increase of developing countries needs especially some Arab countries to capitals for achieving developing projects which required a great deal of investment. That increased borrowing inquiries and resulted in the prominence of external indebtedness as well as increasing financial incidence to serve those debts remarkably.
The size increase of external indebtedness accompanied by increase in these debts payments service exhausted a big ratio of local resources and consequently lead to weakening required aims fulfillment and vanishing a great deal of its exports earnings to serve its external debts then to the decline of its ability to import the requirements needed for the continuation of economic development process, and that lead to more inquiries of back payment. That resulted in the increase of external indebtedness size, so indebtedness problem became more dangerous and complicated and negative effects increased and lead to stop efforts of social and economic development. Then it deepened its dependence to debiting sides and exposed these countries to severe pressure targeted their political and economic abilities and severe monitoring and interference in internal affairs under the influence of their indebtedness increase.
External indebtedness problem increase formed dangers that did not stop at social and economic limitations but they even exceeded that. That lead to exposing political decision making to more foreign pressure and interference, because the granting parties, whether from Paris or London club with International Monetary Fund and World Bank, will impose policies and programmes that the dependence of indebted countries to developed ones.
The research aims at analyzing external indebtedness size to some Arab countries like Jordan, Syria and Lebanon during 1985-2005 and to state indebtedness influence extent on political decision making in these countries. It sets out from a hypothesis stating that external indebtedness size and direction in the Arab countries under discussion is increasing continuously and that lets it open to foreign interference in their internal affairs and then expose them to more political pressure that influence in one way or another the political decision making freedom.

Environmental performance and international trade and its indicators for the Arab States of the year 2008

Najlaa Edrees AL-Abasi; Ahmed Tarik AL-aga; Saad Mahmood AL-Kawas

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 95-112
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.32510

Part of the Arab countries made significant efforts to preserve on the environment through the protection of natural resources, The main problem in this study represented in the answer on the following questions: are there disparities in key indicators of environmental performance of those States, what are the causes and appropriate solutions to that
This paper identifies the main indicator of environment performance in Arab states, The study falls into two parts the first one focuses on the theoretical frame of the environment in the framework of free trade while the second part deals with the indicators of the development in the environment performance in the Arab states.

Czechoslovakia As A Model For Peace Disintegration And Transformation From Communist Socialistic Regime To Liberal Capitalistic One: Failure & Success

Mahmood Salim Jasim

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 113-161
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.32550

After about two decades we try to study a model of transformation for a political system from socialist communism to democratic liberal capitalism in order to clarify the pros and cons affecting each aspect of life by the velvet revolution of 1989 in Czechoslovakia, and the achievements by the democratic transformation, after the political landscape has witnessed the emergence of about 100 parties organizations, movements, and political associations'. moreover, prices have risen 300% compared with the communist system. A new class emerged, besides the strategic transformations by joining the NATO in 1999, then joining the European Union in 2004. The research also tackles the consequences of separation and the political, economic and security movements and failures from 1993-2009 .

The French Communist Party and Its Attitude From The Contemporary Arab Issue

Akram Abed Ali

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 161-194
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.32588

The Paper handles the French Communist Party due to its importance on the political, internal and foreign arena and its attitude from contemporary Arab issues, We talk about the reasons of its unstable attitudes from these issues and the Violence as a means to reach authority as the prolitaria dictatorship which doesn’t believe with the plurality.
Then the party neglected the thoughts and its belief in democracy to reach power and to share the other local parties. The party played an important role in resisting the Nazi Germany which occupied France during the world War II (1940-1944).
The Party took in the power during the fourth been dismissed from Ramader Government during the Gold War and the party has given exaptional authorities to guy mollet, the head of the French government in 1956 and it withdrew from it when the Tri– aggression on Egypt 1956.

Militarization of Iraqi society and its(educational and psychological) reflecting and the strategies to determine it - Field study -

Osama H. Muhammed

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 195-263
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.35002

This study is reading of one of the major crises of Iraqi society, specially in the (militarization) which be looking on his personality. The current research has sought to the meanings of the concept of the militarization of society, when has been a problem because of differences in which meanings, and then it was stressed the importance of research in the concept because it has been a manifestation of abnormal contaminate society's entity and abort its humanity when leads him to a culture of violence since the skip of (education) to be the title of the militarization of education at home and school.
Therefore, diagnosis of kinds for analysis of motives and reasons as well as evaluated its effects through of current research had been verified of the samples during the regular community of Mosul city.
In the light of the results of the research has been to reach many of the strategies is hoped their contribution to terminate the of (the militarization of Iraqi society).
Thus research found a number of recommendations that could open new horizons to take advantage of its analysis and conclusions as well as a number of useful suggestions in context.

On Many HDI In Iraq: A Study In Inquality Statistics Between Governorate

Haytham T. Yousif

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 265-289
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.32632

This research dealt with studying whatever is possible to get from data concerning the life of people in Iraq, weather economic, social, educational, and hygienic and the level of the required infrastructure for a better life. The research hypothesizes that there are huge differences in the life standards quality between Iraqi governorates. Consequently, this research asses the significance of these differences and to limit what ever is possible to arrange the governorates according to the efficiency of life quality. The researcher used the quantitative style in investigating the research hypotheses. The research concludes with dividing the governorates to three main groups which are governorates of the better sort of life, governorates of the medium sort of life and the governorates of the poorest quality of life.

Monetary Integration Prospectives :A study in the Experience of Arab Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCCCs)

Abdullah Fadhil Al-Hayali

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 291-341
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.32652

The structural Similarity of Arab Gulf economies and the harmony of its economic, Financial and monetary Policies ,besides, as it is an optimum Currency area , that determine adopting fixed exchange rates Policy, also founding a uniform Currency has economically justifiable and notable reasons as it provide a strong and stable Currency Which Will have a status among the World leader Currencies, that will set aside financial stocks in abroad from foreign Currencies values depreciation .Moreover, affirming the significance of giving up Pegging with dollar Which is as Common anchor ,and replacing it with basket of Currencies based on import-Weighted index of GCCCs from currencies, which Consists this basket .Further, Euro is an alternative to be taken into consideration of suggested Uniform Currency exchange rate system.

The Future Horizons For Iraqi – Gulf Relations in the Economic Field

Mohammed Abdul-Rahman Al-Obaeidy

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 337-360
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.35027

- Gulf economic relations have witnessed a remarkable development after 2003 through the participation of Gulf companies in reconstructing and investing projects, besides the salability of Gulf goods in the Iraqi markets. This development encouraged both Iraqi and Gulf sides to make talks about free trading and to remove obstacles. Iraq recently has restored membership in chambers of commerce of Gulf Cooperation Council States, which will open new prospects for economic

Syrian National Socialist Party and His Coup Attempt In Lebanon 1961-1962

Fathi A. Khalaf

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 361-388
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.35047

The coup attempt of the nationalist socialist Syrian party against the regime of Fuad Shihab and it's results upon the party itself and the Lebanon society had been tackled in this research. The factors that encouraged and pushed the party to do so had been displayed as well as the foreign support. Also the inside and outside reaction had been dealt with in this research. Moreover this research submitted something about the prosecution of those who contributed in this coup. Finally the results of the research had been presented.

Global Economic Crisis And Followrs

Yasamin Hilal AL-Hayali

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 389-411
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.35059

The last crisis which infected the capitalistic system is considering the one that shake the ideas which the new liberation marketing it. It's proving the necessity of reconsidering of the whole theoretical absolute mechanism for the capitalistic system in the shadow of the globalization that's include returning the governmental financial imposingness and controlling the capitalistic market works, the marketing solutins for the crisis are not enough alone to rescue the system or at least to stop repeating it, that's needs a number of procedures and urgent solutions on the whole of the capiralistic economy, It must include financially and constructional rehabilitations not touch only the financial market but also the whole capitalistic financial constructions with an international efforts being obligated by all the capitalistic countries, After all of that it's not predicable the solution of this problem came form a solo financial procedures from this country or that one.

Palestinians Issue Future In View of The New U.S Administration of Barack Obama

Kalida Ibrahim Khalil AL- Hubayti

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 413-431
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.35075

For the observers of the statement of U.S President Barack Obama, will find that his trend is to encourage the peace process in the middle east, especially the pledges by the ex – president Bush to establish the Palestinian state before the end of 2008, besides the thorny situation in the middle east. Obama will face the most difficult heritage since Nikson's take over in 1968, U.S. is undergoing the most worse economic crisis since the great depression in1929.

Adjectives in Turkish Language

Hasan M. Ferhan

مجلة دراسات إقلیمیة, 2010, السنة 7, العدد 19, الصفحة 433-440
معرّف الوثيقة الرقمي (DOI): 10.33899/regs.2010.35083

Adjectives in Turkish Language come before the nouns. An adjective is known by the word which explains the meanings of nouns, its characteristics and things related to these nouns whether they are nouns of human beings or animals. It also shows us its numbers ,characteristics and orders . An adjective differs from a noun by not taking suffixes for the cases of singular plural and possession.
Adjectives are divided into two parts according to their function: descriptive adjectives and question adjectives.