Volume 6, Issue 19, Summer 2010, Page 9-440
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 9-25
Moderation does not mean to be with reality, but it is the capability in dealing with reality to change it and not accommodate with reality without changing it. This gives moderation, the call for stability method an importance. It refuses to be Subject to foreigner, and rejects backwardness, secession for this means losing rights.
Moderation belives in gradualism, suggesting alternatives and not to keep only by faithful intentions in reform.
There should be a continous work in providing good examples. It is the state of balance between extremism and upnormality from one side, negligence and default from another. Moderation is a method in life, politics and dealing with others. Moderation as a trend, extends a cross history, not being a historical and social state, but it is the product of a renewal movement. Moderation does not take the road of Violence to change things, but it justifies resistance against powers of occupation and foreign dominance.
Really, moderation, if it is being applied, it will lead to political and social stability, There is no development without stability and no stability without moderation. It is well – Known that standards of political and social stability may increase the chances of political openness and democracy linked with moderation in attitudes and behaviours.
Moderation in thought recognizes the other and doesnot refuse it trying to secure points of understanding with others. One of these fruits of moderation is to plant confidence among People of the country and this will spread the state of mercy, building Positive social relations and to be far from extremism and dislike and this helps in building society and a achieving a state of stability which prepares the scope of right social interaction.
The paper asks: who are qualified in our society to lead the approach of moderation to achieve stability, social safety, sustainable development?
We say, frankly, that they are the people of the Middle class. This class in our Arab world is facing deterioration and disjoining due to society attracting the few (Who holds every thing) and the majority (who have nothing).
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 27-68
To the extent that development of human vision or centered on the rights and aspiring to strengthen the position of the individual, freedom and creative abilities have to be a greater need to increase investment in culture and transfer of development itself to the cultural development. And vice versa, as far as deny development of man and focus on its profit-making business or build military might and superiority which eliminated the relative importance of culture and less interest in them and behind the values of reason and freedom and peace.
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 69-93
ambitious plans and developing programs. They resorted to international financial markets to borrow because of rarity of local financial resources for most of these countries. The theoretical justification was that external borrowing enhanced local saving.
Until earlier of 1970s, the external debts of developing countries especially some Arab ones were few or relatively few. The debts were primarily (a formal phenomenon) and most debtors were foreign governments and international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund. The World Bank and regional developing banks. Most loans were granted as privilege (low interest), then they expanded to include many aspects. The intermediated and capital goods imports increased as well. That is why, the external indebtedness size during the above period was distinguished by the increase of developing countries needs especially some Arab countries to capitals for achieving developing projects which required a great deal of investment. That increased borrowing inquiries and resulted in the prominence of external indebtedness as well as increasing financial incidence to serve those debts remarkably.
The size increase of external indebtedness accompanied by increase in these debts payments service exhausted a big ratio of local resources and consequently lead to weakening required aims fulfillment and vanishing a great deal of its exports earnings to serve its external debts then to the decline of its ability to import the requirements needed for the continuation of economic development process, and that lead to more inquiries of back payment. That resulted in the increase of external indebtedness size, so indebtedness problem became more dangerous and complicated and negative effects increased and lead to stop efforts of social and economic development. Then it deepened its dependence to debiting sides and exposed these countries to severe pressure targeted their political and economic abilities and severe monitoring and interference in internal affairs under the influence of their indebtedness increase.
External indebtedness problem increase formed dangers that did not stop at social and economic limitations but they even exceeded that. That lead to exposing political decision making to more foreign pressure and interference, because the granting parties, whether from Paris or London club with International Monetary Fund and World Bank, will impose policies and programmes that the dependence of indebted countries to developed ones.
The research aims at analyzing external indebtedness size to some Arab countries like Jordan, Syria and Lebanon during 1985-2005 and to state indebtedness influence extent on political decision making in these countries. It sets out from a hypothesis stating that external indebtedness size and direction in the Arab countries under discussion is increasing continuously and that lets it open to foreign interference in their internal affairs and then expose them to more political pressure that influence in one way or another the political decision making freedom.
Environmental performance and international trade and its indicators for the Arab States of the year 2008
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 95-112
Part of the Arab countries made significant efforts to preserve on the environment through the protection of natural resources, The main problem in this study represented in the answer on the following questions: are there disparities in key indicators of environmental performance of those States, what are the causes and appropriate solutions to that
This paper identifies the main indicator of environment performance in Arab states, The study falls into two parts the first one focuses on the theoretical frame of the environment in the framework of free trade while the second part deals with the indicators of the development in the environment performance in the Arab states.
Czechoslovakia As A Model For Peace Disintegration And Transformation From Communist Socialistic Regime To Liberal Capitalistic One: Failure & Success
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 113-161
After about two decades we try to study a model of transformation for a political system from socialist communism to democratic liberal capitalism in order to clarify the pros and cons affecting each aspect of life by the velvet revolution of 1989 in Czechoslovakia, and the achievements by the democratic transformation, after the political landscape has witnessed the emergence of about 100 parties organizations, movements, and political associations'. moreover, prices have risen 300% compared with the communist system. A new class emerged, besides the strategic transformations by joining the NATO in 1999, then joining the European Union in 2004. The research also tackles the consequences of separation and the political, economic and security movements and failures from 1993-2009 .
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 161-194
The Paper handles the French Communist Party due to its importance on the political, internal and foreign arena and its attitude from contemporary Arab issues, We talk about the reasons of its unstable attitudes from these issues and the Violence as a means to reach authority as the prolitaria dictatorship which doesn’t believe with the plurality.
Then the party neglected the thoughts and its belief in democracy to reach power and to share the other local parties. The party played an important role in resisting the Nazi Germany which occupied France during the world War II (1940-1944).
The Party took in the power during the fourth been dismissed from Ramader Government during the Gold War and the party has given exaptional authorities to guy mollet, the head of the French government in 1956 and it withdrew from it when the Tri– aggression on Egypt 1956.
Militarization of Iraqi society and its(educational and psychological) reflecting and the strategies to determine it - Field study -
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 195-263
This study is reading of one of the major crises of Iraqi society, specially in the (militarization) which be looking on his personality. The current research has sought to the meanings of the concept of the militarization of society, when has been a problem because of differences in which meanings, and then it was stressed the importance of research in the concept because it has been a manifestation of abnormal contaminate society's entity and abort its humanity when leads him to a culture of violence since the skip of (education) to be the title of the militarization of education at home and school.
Therefore, diagnosis of kinds for analysis of motives and reasons as well as evaluated its effects through of current research had been verified of the samples during the regular community of Mosul city.
In the light of the results of the research has been to reach many of the strategies is hoped their contribution to terminate the of (the militarization of Iraqi society).
Thus research found a number of recommendations that could open new horizons to take advantage of its analysis and conclusions as well as a number of useful suggestions in context.
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 265-289
This research dealt with studying whatever is possible to get from data concerning the life of people in Iraq, weather economic, social, educational, and hygienic and the level of the required infrastructure for a better life. The research hypothesizes that there are huge differences in the life standards quality between Iraqi governorates. Consequently, this research asses the significance of these differences and to limit what ever is possible to arrange the governorates according to the efficiency of life quality. The researcher used the quantitative style in investigating the research hypotheses. The research concludes with dividing the governorates to three main groups which are governorates of the better sort of life, governorates of the medium sort of life and the governorates of the poorest quality of life.
Monetary Integration Prospectives :A study in the Experience of Arab Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCCCs)
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 291-341
The structural Similarity of Arab Gulf economies and the harmony of its economic, Financial and monetary Policies ,besides, as it is an optimum Currency area , that determine adopting fixed exchange rates Policy, also founding a uniform Currency has economically justifiable and notable reasons as it provide a strong and stable Currency Which Will have a status among the World leader Currencies, that will set aside financial stocks in abroad from foreign Currencies values depreciation .Moreover, affirming the significance of giving up Pegging with dollar Which is as Common anchor ,and replacing it with basket of Currencies based on import-Weighted index of GCCCs from currencies, which Consists this basket .Further, Euro is an alternative to be taken into consideration of suggested Uniform Currency exchange rate system.
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 337-360
- Gulf economic relations have witnessed a remarkable development after 2003 through the participation of Gulf companies in reconstructing and investing projects, besides the salability of Gulf goods in the Iraqi markets. This development encouraged both Iraqi and Gulf sides to make talks about free trading and to remove obstacles. Iraq recently has restored membership in chambers of commerce of Gulf Cooperation Council States, which will open new prospects for economic
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 361-388
The coup attempt of the nationalist socialist Syrian party against the regime of Fuad Shihab and it's results upon the party itself and the Lebanon society had been tackled in this research. The factors that encouraged and pushed the party to do so had been displayed as well as the foreign support. Also the inside and outside reaction had been dealt with in this research. Moreover this research submitted something about the prosecution of those who contributed in this coup. Finally the results of the research had been presented.
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 389-411
The last crisis which infected the capitalistic system is considering the one that shake the ideas which the new liberation marketing it. It's proving the necessity of reconsidering of the whole theoretical absolute mechanism for the capitalistic system in the shadow of the globalization that's include returning the governmental financial imposingness and controlling the capitalistic market works, the marketing solutins for the crisis are not enough alone to rescue the system or at least to stop repeating it, that's needs a number of procedures and urgent solutions on the whole of the capiralistic economy, It must include financially and constructional rehabilitations not touch only the financial market but also the whole capitalistic financial constructions with an international efforts being obligated by all the capitalistic countries, After all of that it's not predicable the solution of this problem came form a solo financial procedures from this country or that one.
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 413-431
For the observers of the statement of U.S President Barack Obama, will find that his trend is to encourage the peace process in the middle east, especially the pledges by the ex – president Bush to establish the Palestinian state before the end of 2008, besides the thorny situation in the middle east. Obama will face the most difficult heritage since Nikson's take over in 1968, U.S. is undergoing the most worse economic crisis since the great depression in1929.
Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 433-440
Adjectives in Turkish Language come before the nouns. An adjective is known by the word which explains the meanings of nouns, its characteristics and things related to these nouns whether they are nouns of human beings or animals. It also shows us its numbers ,characteristics and orders . An adjective differs from a noun by not taking suffixes for the cases of singular plural and possession.
Adjectives are divided into two parts according to their function: descriptive adjectives and question adjectives.