ISSN: 1813-4610

Volume 5, Issue 16

Volume 5, Issue 16, Autumn 2009, Page 9-540

Culture And Politics In Contemporary IraqSupreme Teachers Institute 1923-1958:A page From History of University Education

Ibrahim Khalil Al; Alaf

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 9-39

The Supreme Teachers Institute has been established in 1923
and at the beginning it gave evening study till 1927. This institute
has been abolished in 1931 but it returned in 1935 and the period of
study has become four years to give the students B.A. degree in
arts, or science or education. The reason of its abolition was the
fear of the ruling authorities from practicing political activities
The paper is an attempt to document the history of Supreme
Teachers Institute, its activities and its effect upon so-ciety since its
establishment till 1958 in which its name has been changed into
College of Education.

Arab economic security and sustainable development

Rawa Zeki Younis yihyia ALtawel

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 40-80

Have been achieved in the Arab region some actual
accomplishments in the field of sustainable development,
particularly in health, education and living standards but there are
also a number of constraints facing the Arab countries in the longer
application of sustainable development, including the absence of
peace, security and the continuing foreign occupation of some Arab
land, poverty, illiteracy population growth and the debt burden, arid
landscape of the region and the limited agricultural land and water,
as well as the limited capabilities of academic and research centers
and recent experience of civil society, and we have the Arab
League adopted from the Arab Ministerial Declaration on
Sustainable Development issued in Cairo October 25, 2001
regional input integrated through the Council of of Arab Ministers
Responsible for the Environment and other specialized ministerial
councils, in cooperation with Arab, regional and international, to
develop a regional program for sustainable development.

Turkey and the Soviet Union (1980 - 1996)Political-Economic Study

Hanna Azzo Behnan

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 81-102

This study explain the nature of political and economic
relations, which prevailed between Turkey and the Soviet Union
since the military Turkish coup in September, 1980 until the end of
1991 that is before the Soviet Union disintegration, then the nature
of the relation which prevailed between Turkey and Federal Russia
inheritor the Soviet Union since December,1991 until 1996.
Through these years, the foreign policy which Turkey followed
with Soviet Union previously( federal Russia subsequently) was the
continuation to multi- aspects, which Turkey followed since the
sixties of the twentieth century. These years of the study witnessed
an improvement in relations between the two states on both
political of economic levels.

Trends of the components of exports and imports between Turkey and E.U. and the change in its geographical distribution from 1980-2004

Hishim M. Sa; eed; ad M. Al-Kawaz

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 103-138

The research aims at recognizing Turkish orientation
toward the European markets as an alternative market by
analyzing the developing trends of Import and export
components between Turkey and the E.U. and the change
in its geographical distribution for more than last twenty
years. The research has included two basic axis's ; the first has
dealt with the developing trends of the components of the
merchandise structure of foreign trade between Turkey and
the E.U. While the second has focused on pursuing the
geographical foreign trade regarding both Exports and


Nawfal Kasim Ali Al-Shahwan

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 139-170

The study aims to "analyze the reality of the relationship between
the scientific and technological development and economic development
through estimating Arab technological progress and determine the style
of the Syrian economy with some comparisons". It assumes that "the
indicators of Arab technological progress is: slow, of endogenous type
(i.e. autonomous Genesis), and does not interact with exogenous style in
growth. Policies of Arab economic development stands, among many
reasons behind the nature of modest development".
The study reached many conclusions. The most is the nature of
growth in Syria is autonomous and upbringing of exogenous
technological change, then efficiency gauge had a negative trends
for economic growth, although the economy works at the stage of
increased economic returns. It is, like other Arab economies ready
for stimulus and response depending, if any on policies of
knowledge base development to move towards possible efficiency
and competitiveness

Adapting Tillage System Technology At Rain Sector In SudanA Study of Sudanese Arab Company Experience For Agriculture In Blue Nile [ACDI]

Yousif Al-Faqeeh Abdul-Kareem

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 171-188

The rained area of agricultural land in Sudan, constitute
about 89% of the cultivated land. The production in this
sector depends on traditional systems which limit
agricultural land and led to low productivity. So zerotillage
system was introduced to raise productivity and
reduce cost. This new system met boom in agricultural
productivity of all crops grown equivalent to 4-5 times
the productivity achieved by the traditional systems. But
there is obstacles facing Zero-tillage system including
drought and late rains, so the researcher has
recommended conducting deep studies to see the
possibility of harmonizing between this system and
tillage system, for the proper usage of Rosaries dam water
which well be elevated in the two coming years.

Fields Of Using The Management Audit For Purposes Of Evaluating & Decisions Making Enterprises

Manhel Mageed Ahmed

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 189-220

From this point, this research is aimed to identify about the fields and extent of this type of audit from its, and its (conception, objectives, important, fields, procedures, standards, and its special reports, its models). In additional to determination of evaluating fields related it and its represented by: (Objectives Evaluating, Plans Evaluating, Evaluating of Control Systems, Organization Evaluating, Partial & Total Performance Evaluating, Expenditure Qualifying Evaluating).

The Current Global Financial Crisis And Its Implications For The Arab Economies With Reference To The Algerian Economy In Light Of Its Affiliation To WTO

Assistant Prof; Dept. of Economics

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 221-248

the speech about the admission of the Algeria to the
World Trade Organization and the different difficulties which
prevent them to reach their aims, push us to ask many
questions about the fate of this country when they become
members of this organization, Under the impact of financial
crisis after giving a lot of concessions and efforts in order to
fulfil the changes which were conditioned to become as active
members in the multilateral trade system which the WTO is
The problem cannot be limited to the few urges which
were as a must up on the Shoulder of the countries who want
to be admitted to the WTO without exposing their economy to
problems and difficulties that may hinder its development.
To this fact, we believe that the admission Algeria does
not stop off at the acquisition of the membership permit to this
organization, but it rather goes beyond it to assure their
economic stability and their real integration in the multilateral
trade system.

Federal Russia And The Nuclear Program of Iran

Mohammed Abdul-Rahman Younis Al-Obaydee

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 249-286

The issue of nuclear program of Iran Since 2002 has been
emerged after the International Agency for Atomic Energy has
explored nuclear stations inside Iran. This issue has raised the
hatred and worry some of the states especially the western ones in
which it has become the axis of competition and international wills
have varied. With regard to the Russian attitude, Federal Russia
and in a accordance with its interests with Iran, it tried to adopt
attitudes in supporting these interests. But at the same time, it tried
for such attitudes not to affect its national security in future and its
relations with western states and in the first place U.S.A. It tried to
keep this issue as a pledge used by Russia with its relation with the
western states.

The Eqivocality between the Individual and the Authority in the Regimes and its Impact on the Political Pluralism

Waleed Salim Mohamed

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 323-356

Despotism is a phenomenon known by the Arabic region for
a long time ago, many factors have been involved in its
formulation, such as the political, economic, social, cultural, and
psychological ones. It reveals a defect in the relation between ruler
and the ruled, and this relation has always been understood by
political authority in a manner that shows the superiority of the
ruler over the ruled through considering the authority a private
property and not professional position, a matter that caused a defect
in the relation between the authority and society.
Hence the contemporary political system did not understand
the authority in a different way, and here came the negative stand
towards the society in general and towards the political opposition
in particular.As a result, mechanism of the official political
discourse of the authority with the opposition was characterized by
inactivation, exiling, canceling and extreme violence. This created
non – trust atmospheres between the authority and opposition,
which was negatively reflected on the citizen, society, and the stand
towards political pluralism. And this is what the research has

Turkey's Balkan policy in the post-cold war period (1991-2001)

Abed Shater Abdul-Rahman

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 357-388

Balkan region occupies a significant position in the Turkish strategic perception for the reasons of geographical neighborhood and the national and religious ties. There are Turkish minorities in many Balkan states; moreover, a big percentage of the Turkey people are of Balkan's origins, in addition to the connective relations on the part of the Muslim in the Balkan toward Turkey. The end of the cold war, disassemble of the former Soviet Union, and the collapse of the communist camp erased the barrier in front of the Turkish intervention in the Balkan region. The turkey started an active policy through which it promoted its p0litical, military, and economic relations with many Balkan states.

Iraq-Gulf Prospective Relations In Military Field

Wathiq Mohammed Barrack

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 389-426

The research supposition is based on a prospective vision for a military cooperation between Iraq and Arab Gulf States that involved a briefed description for different stages of Iraqi-Gulf relations in the contemporary history and its changes from inconsistency to attraction or inactivity according to the period condition. Then it focused on these relations after American occupation of Iraq, analyzed gestures and statements by Arab Gulf officials regarding (The New) Iraq, also it defined the possible patterns for military cooperation through reviewing the existing military potency of Arab Gulf states and Iraqi human sources to invest in this field, displaying the Iraqi army deficiency. Moreover the research broached foreign factor affecting that cooperation and concentrated on the American and Iranian elements as the most impacting and being influence.

The problem of the Kurds in the Iranian policy

Mohammed S. Mahmood

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 427-460

The Kurdish problem in the middle east was and still one of the most
complicated issues that threw its shadows on the countries of the area that
are habited by the Kurdish minority including Iran in which this issues
affected the Iranian interior policy with the Kurds because Tehran doesn't
admit with the rights of the Kurdish minority. the matter which made this
minority to be formed within armed movements and parties considered as
terrorist organizations by the Iranian government.
The Kurdish case had its impact on the foreign Iranian policy
especially that concerns the cooperation with her neighbor turkey which
witnessed signing several security treaties for the sake of controlling the
boarders and go after the wanted outlaws from both Ankara and Tehran.
The Kurdish issue had different impacts on the relation between Iraq and
Iran represented in the continuing Iranian military interference and
violating the Iraqi borders claiming that it is after the Kurdish Iranian
outlaws. The paper tried to deal with the Kurdish issue in the foreign and
interior Iranian policy through three main sections. the first deals with the
occurrence and the development in Iran. The second deals with the
Iranian policy towards the Kurds inside Iran ,and the third deals with the
Kurdish impact on the Iranian foreign policy.

The development of tourism & travel services, and economic performance of a sample of developing countries

Ahmed Tarik Mahmood ALaga

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 461-490

The travel and tourism sector has become one of the most important sources of the economies of several developed and developing countries for its role in the gross domestic product in addition to its direct effect on the employment , improving the balance of payments position through importing hard currency
The present study aims at introducing the concept of tourism , its types and its role in the economical variables as well as the total impact if the increased degree of competition in this sector on the total output of the sample countries.
The study divided into two parts the first one focuses on the theoretical frame of this sector while the second part deals with the analysis of the indicators of the development in this sector and its effect on the gross domestic product of the sample countries.

Japanese–Israeli Relations and their Impact on thePeace Process in the Middle East

Adnan Kh. Hameed Al-Badrany

Regional Studies, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 491-540

The research aims at demonstrating Japan's role in the Middle
East and its impact on achieving peace for having economic and
other qualifications, bearing in mind that it is a neutral state
distinguished by constant foreign policy. The research falls into
two parts, the first tackles the Japanese policy towards peace
process between the Arabs and (Israel), the second undertakes the
Japanese policy and the issue of the Middle East. The research has
come to the conclusion that Japan's foreign policy is characterized
with neutrality seeking an international role in order to keep its
interests in this region.