Volume 4, Issue 10, Winter 2008, Page 9-316
Volume 4, Issue 10, Pages 9-20
Since the beginning of 20th century. Iraqi authors, historians, politicians, economists and geographers took care in studying historical ties between Iraq and Syria. Mohammed Amain Al-Omary, a contemporary Iraqi historian and militarist was one of those who took part in this topic, then came after him Dr. Majeed Khadouri in 1930's. In 1940's,politicians and leaders of Iraqi parties were interested in the issue of Syrian struggle for independence. In 1950's and 1960's, so many studies had appeared regarding events in Syria and its Arab and regional reflections and an Iraqi Academic historical school had emerged to participate in achieving dissertations and theses explaining the depth of Iraqi- Syrian ties. The paper deals with these efforts.
Population Growth And Agricultural Growth Under Limited Surface Water Resources In The Tigris-Euphrates Basin States: 1950–2006
Volume 4, Issue 10, Pages 21-42
Over the period 1950–2006, the Tigris-Euphrates basin states (i.e. Iraq, Syria and Turkey) witnessed an alarming population growth. During that period, the region's population increased from 30.3 million in 1950 to more than 120 million in 2006. Moreover, population growth in the region is currently (2007) at an absolute rate of more than two million a year. Parallel to this population growth, in response to and in anticipation of the rapidly increasing population size in particular, the governments of the region made a large-scale developmental efforts. These efforts included a large-scale investment in agricultural infrastructure, especially in the creation of irrigation capacities. All these efforts were conducted under a given average annual rate of flow of water resources, of Tigris-Euphrates rivers within Turkey, of some 55 billion cubic meter. This paper presents some facts on the changing population size (and labour force) in the Tigris-Euphrates basin states, as well as some facts related to agricultural growth in each over the period 1950-2006. The logical relationship among population growth, agricultural capacity expansion, and the given average annual rate of flow of surface water resources of the Tigris-Euphrates rivers (within Turkey) led the author to the following conclusion: population growth in the region is incompatible with the simultaneous and sustainable expansion of agricultural capacity in each of Tigris-Euphrates basin states. The author concluded this exploratory study by suggesting the organization of two consecutive conferences on population growth, past and present, in Iraq and in the region as a whole respectively. The aim of each is to formulate a united population policy aiming at the achievement of the 'zero population growth' target in the region, within ten to fifteen years.
Volume 4, Issue 10, Pages 43-76
This paper presents explanatory analysis for the basic indicators of good governance coincided with several issues related with the influences of these indicators in approximated measurement for sustainable development to many Arab economies.
Good governance indicators measure the following six dimensions of: 1) accountability and voice; 2) political stability and violence; 3) government effectiveness; 4) regulatory quality; 5) rule of law; and 6) control of corruption. It covers five Arab countries and territories for 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2004. The countries are: Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, and Jordan.
The paper analyzing those indicators of the six dimensions of governance for each period, as well as several different issues, like: 7) Money Contract and 8) State Democracy, influencing related economic growth and hence development values for the Arab countries sample.
Three sections: Arab development management, Arab development indicators and dimensions, and Arab development sustainability.. undertake several important links as a features of all efforts needed to establishing good governance, including objective indicators. Five features of Human Sustainable Development affecting people's Lifestyle, are: Empowerment, Co-operation, Equity, Social Security, Sustainability of development generations. The Arab economies have abundance of natural, human, and historical wealth that meets both of the economic development sustainable development inquiries.
Volume 4, Issue 10, Pages 100-108
The view of the world and the including three states (Iraq, Turkey and Iran) has changed greatly after the end of the cold war and the domain of the single pole upon the international politics. The nature of the geographic neighboring and the joint historical ties full of positive and negative periods might affect the product of these states. This princible applies on these three states in order to share forming the political scene within this region.
Volume 4, Issue 10, Pages 109-123
The two latter decate of twentieth century saw combination of events caused the international economic environment less conductive to economic growth and created combination of domestic and external determinants which contributed to a serious deterioration in the current account positions of most developing countries of which geographic neighborhood countries of Iraq.
This study aims to estimation and analysis the domestic and external determinants of current accounts of neighborhood countries of Iraq , starting from hypothesis says “That the domestic determinants are more significant than external determinants in its affect in current accounts of geographic neighborhood countries of Iraq”.
The study reached to important result shows that the domestic determinants more significant in its affect in current accounts of geographic neighborhood countries of Iraq and this result is suitable to the study hypothesis.
Volume 4, Issue 10, Pages 124-148
The secret treaties were hold by the alliances at the time of the First World War, formed the Italian policy towards the Othman state in the stage that followed it. At the peace conference, the Italians were holding on the distinctions which they have got according to the secret treaties, which were firstly economic distinctions , yet the alliances eluded of their previous treaties and stand against the directions of their last alliance. The matter which creates a lot of problems, which made Italy seeks for achieving its demands by means of military occupation, and this is what happened in the problem of Azmeer when the Italian military forces which got down in it under the excuse of being the area is granted to them according to London secret treaty. But the opponent situation for the alliances obliged the Italians to withdraw their forces after then.
At the same time when the Turkish National Movement , Italy tried to find a special relationship with the patriots as an attempt to get their goals , especially, that they consider the Sultan Government in Istanbul is supporting British, so the Italian government longs to support those patriots for achieving its aims and in return the Turkish would got a lot of loads of weapons from Italians which enable them of continuing their fighting against the Greek.
Volume 4, Issue 10, Pages 149-183
Jewish literature since its beginning has filled up with opinions of Zionist movement. Jewish men of letters have a doped these opinions and that movement stood aside in order not to induce the Jews and to attract them towards Palestine educating the children and the young to be the land of the whole Israel. The paper is an attempt to study the Jewish literature and its philosophy and its relation with the Zionist movement. It also presents models of Zionist dimensions insisting that the Jewish religion is the basic tie between their legacy and their past from one side and the current prospects and the future dreams from another.
Volume 4, Issue 10, Pages 184-224
Half century ago Turkey has begun to experience instability in its political situations due to the crises that took various aspects resulting from many factors to be summarized in military establishment sticking to Ataturks heritage, conflict between secularists and Islamists, and the relation with the west, in addition to the economic deterioration.
Presidency crisis constituted one of the most important sources of instability in turkey following the first military coup in 1960 which was accompanied by reformulating a new constitution, being the second one in turkey in its republican era, and the attempt by the army in dedicating their role and imposing their trusteeship on the secular regime of the state. That caused the first presidential crisis in Turkey to rise in 1973, and to recur in 1980 embodying the conflict between political powers and military establishment. The latter was consequently led to intervene again in 1980 on the pretext of maintaining the regime and avoiding its collapse. The last intervention by the army led to put a third constitution aiming at expanding the authorities of the president, a matter that made the form of the regime closer to the presidential nature.
The research tries to shed light on the nature and considerations of the last presidential crisis that swept Turkey since the spring of 2007 which inflected the conflict between the secular powers on the one hand and the moderate Islam, represented by Justice and Development Party on the other. This crisis has resulted in many significant outcomes ; it was a turning point in the history of Turkey as a secular state presided by an Islamic. It also proved the ability of the Islamic stream in facing its secular rivals. The crisis had also its repercussions on the establishments of the political regime. Presidency position was subject to many amendments whether regarding election machinery on term of office. The same thing is true with regard to the legislative authority.
Volume 4, Issue 10, Pages 225-238
Islamic trends in Turkey are divided into twoparts. The first is called (political Islam) representing the political parties which cotain the traditions of Islam and at the head of this trend is Nagimedin Arbakan. The second part includes (The social trend of Islam)representing the Sufi methods all over the Turkish society and the most significant are Nakshabandya, Tyganyah and Nurasi. This has been divided after his death into groups. These groups have an important role in the promotion of educational and cultural level of the Turkish society. The most important groups is the group of Fathallah Gholin.
Gholin is the second face of Islamic trends in Turkey and gets many cultural organizations in which he can achieve his Islamic trend.Gholin believes that forming an Islamic authority should begin from the popular base till the top of the political pyramid.
Volume 4, Issue 10, Pages 239-263
This paper aims at high lightening the relations between Cairo and Washington by all its political , economic and military aspects and following up and analyzing these relations and the most important events which here affected within some fields. The first summarizes these relations since its beginning in the first half of the 19th century tell to end of 1980s. The second field tries to follow up these relations between both states during the 1990s. The last field speaks about economic level of this and the effect of political level. As for the military relations it talks about studying these relations these relations within the fourth field.
U.N Authority In Forming A court in Accordance with the 7 the chapter: Al-Harrir Court AS An Example
Volume 4, Issue 10, Pages 264-292
After the assassination of the former prime minister of Lebanon Rafik Al-Harrir in February 2005 ,political disputes have been raised upon the Lebanese arena in order to the reach a mechanism to convict this crime.
Due to those disputes, the government of Lebanon asked the U.N to form a private court in an international form , Responding to the demand , U.N issued a resolution No(1757) to form a private court within the 7 the chapter.
The formation of this court added a new problem for the Lebanese situation without finding any lawful answer to this issue.
Volume 4, Issue 10, Pages 293-316
Arab research centers appeared lately in 20th Century. They appeared in its picture in European universities during 18th century. There was what is known "Scientific chairs" to imitate what is well – known in Islamic world. There were seminars headed by advisory opinions. Often, research centers are formed due to most important events and urgent issues which lead to look for better political solutions. They were known in the west (Think Tanks) in U.S.A. because of its researches and analyses.
But the situation is different in relation to Arab research centers. Those centers didn't take its real place. Also, its products found its way on the shelves and archives without getting the suitable chance to be exploited.