Volume 3, Issue 6, Winter 2007, Page 1-331
Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 1-49
This paper drives at studying two significant aspects of the reformation in the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: The first is to trace back the foundations of secularist trends in the Ottoman Empire highlighting the salient domains and the legal procedures it encompassed down to its branching off with Mustapha Kemal efforts. The second is to tract the policy of kemalism in the field of establishing a novem state according to secularist principles which exclude religious impact from politics.
However, the paper reached that a consequence which made Mustapha Kemal Ataturk `successors realize that was impossible to ignore a rather significant reality that religion is one of the most political and Social forces influencing Turkish Society.
Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 50-71
Political Openness appeared in Turkey after World War 11 through the foundation of parties and organizations. Sufi methods also appeared and started their activity openly or secretly according to the circumstances. The political developments agree to form religious and political parties which shared in the political operation, which admitted the Islamic trend to grow and develop where an intensive Islamic trend tried to from Islamic country in Turkey.
In 1985, after his refuge to Germany, Mateen Kablan declared the foundation of an Intensive Islamic Organization aiming for Islamic Caliphate in Turkey, trying to defeat sciential judging system in Turkey. After the death of the founder, his son Mateen Mufti Oghlo became the leader of the organization and declared himself caliph of Moslems, after that it is developed and its branches spread in all Turkey and Europe.
The organization practised the political activity against Turkey which later started sudden arrest of its members.
Turkey government jointly worked with Germany to faiht the organization and drying its sources. Accordingly Mufti Oghlo, its leader was arrested accusing him of encouraging Killing and was prisoned 4 years.
Though it faced some regulations to stop their activities, the organization continued the activities secretly through distributing secret pamphlets to the Turkish people in Germany.
Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 72-114
The research deals with the national opposition of Syria and its role in the politics of Syria from the middle of 1970's till now a days . it highlights on the style of Syria in developing and mentioning the aspects of Syrian thoughts in achieving democracy in two periods. The first is during the reign of Hafiz Asad which found itself obliged in making political changes to be on the head of the power. The second, after Bashar Asad was on the head of the country. Thus, the notional Syrian opposition had witnessed a marked activity and hoth its trends and thoughts have been clarified especially after September 11th events and the calls for democratic and political reforms as well as the rise of what is calle . ((The Big Middle East)).
Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 115-133
Foreign trade is a vital indicator which shows state ability in productivity and competition inside international market. This indicator is related to this ability in exportation and income levels as well as its ability in importation and how is this reflected upon the state account from foreign currencies and the effects upon trade balance.
Trade relations among geographical neighboring states have remaimed weak and suffered from problems inspite of its joint history and being Islamic states but they still suffer from economic problems and the weakness of its structural productivity. They export oil and need so many types of goods not produced but imported from other states like agricultural goods and modern technology. Therefore, these states should coordinate its efforts and to be specialized in certain field. Producing few goods in these states might lead to severe competition without getting positive results.
Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 134-160
Turkish- German relations is characterized by a long history relatively it comes back to the Ottoman Era and in particular during the 18 th century. This matter makes such relations too complicated in political, economic and cultural fields. Although the se relations has passed through different periods in both Weakness and strength Since the establishment of the Modern Turkish Republic in 1923 till today. But the best stages in the history of these relations Was the period of Ordaghan government and the previous government of Shroyder. It has entered a new stage of growth and enlargement in all aspects. From here, this Study tries to Follow up the development of these relations and analyzing all its aspects.
Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 161-180
At the end of 1950s',King Saud Bin Abdul-Asis had presented an idea Concerning with drawing Waters from South of Iraq. The aim of these Waters is to provide drinking Waters and Waters for irrigation for the lands near by the Capital Al-Rayath,At that time, Correspondence between Iraq and Saudi Arabia have been exchanged ended in Contracting many primary and Consultative negotiations among officials of both Countries. Both Parties have agreed on fulfilling the project of with drawing Waters from the Iraqi Lands by choosing a suitable Location.
The first from Euphrates and second from shat al-arab.on this basis special technical designs have been prepared by the relative engineering companies.
The project has failed due to Some problems and difficulties facing it and this has led both Iraqi and Saudi governments to forget it and waiting for another chance to study it later.
Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 181-201
Arab league has started a remarkable move in preparing a strategic plan to help Iraq. This step has been faced by various Iraqi views. Some groups warn from any Arab role in Iraq. The reasons behind the refusal of any Arab role some followers return it to the years of Saddam Hussein's regime. Those see that Arab states had advocated him , while others see that the Arab role was the worst after the occupation. Throughout the last two years. The Arab league was watching the situation in Iraq without any positive interference. The Arab league has found justifications in moving quickly. Some Iraqi sides wished to interfere, moreover there is violence in Iraq and the beginnings of civil war which may cause the division of Iraq. This has been refused totally in the Arab Homeland. Finally, the failure of the league in finding an answer to the Iraqi crisis will increase the criticism of the league itself.
Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 202-224
The state is the main subject of the international Law, there are three basic elements to form a state. These elements are people, region, and government.But the all thes elements are not enough by itself and there should be a standard inside the international law which characterizes the state to another politcal, adminstrative and regional units.This standard shuld be legal and that is what is known Sovereignty. One of the most important issues that raises argument is the Case where one State attacks or invade another one and the later tries to Control the region of the first state completely. This is what is Called military occupation. The occupation does not shift Sovereignty into the state which made occupation.
Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 225-279
This paper is entitled (The Egyptian foreign policy 1981 – 1990) aims at following up the diplomatic effect made by the government of president mubank during the period of the paper. It was the most crucial one in relative to the Egyptian policy. The government has tried deeply to correct mistakes by the the president Sadat and trying to cure the error which followed the relations of Egypt regionally and internationally.
The paper is divided into two parts. The first first deals with the foreign policy of Egypt during 1980 on a regional. It includes the issue of the main regional parts that dealt with Egyptian diplomacy such as the Palestinian issue, Arab. Israel conflict, Iraq- Iran war. The second part deals with the foreign policy of Egypt on the international level especially Egypt's relations with U.S.A, the previous Soviet Urion and the European continent. It talks also a bout how the Egyptian diplomacy was able make a sort of balance to this relation.
Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 280-312
Ozal is considered one of the most important characters that ruled Turkey after Mustafa Kamal Ataturk. His period which lasted 1983-1993 has left clear effects upon the Turkish arena.
It is well known that Ozal is the director of so many projects such as the new Ottomanism aims at collecting the nations which talk Turkish from China wall till Adryatic Sea in one nation and Turkey to be the owner of that leadership. This is Central Asia, Balkan, Caucasi and the middle East.
At the beginning of 1990's, ther was a clear chance to declare that project after the international arena had witnessed the collapse of the U.S.S.R. and the Islamic Republics of central Asia had got their independence. This has pushed to take practical steps towards achieving this project.
Volume 3, Issue 6, Pages 313-331
Syrian-Lebanese relations are significant in its historical dimension. The reasons are not only historical and human but also based on economic needs and mutual human interests for both countries. Some changes had taken place for such relation especially the Syrian existence in Lebanon. They are internal changes in Lebanon and regional developments from another point. The internal changes in Lebanon are represented with the assassination of the former Prime Minister of Lebanon Rafik Al-Hariree and the rise of the Lebanese opposition which demanded to end the Syrian existence in Lebanon. As for the regional developments, they are represented by the American existence in the eara and the political changes that followed this existence.