Volume 12, Issue 39, Summer 2019, Page 9-221
Volume 12, Issue 39, Pages 9-42
Arab countries seek since the 1940s to achieve Arab economic integration, several agreements have been held to facilitate trade exchange and to create free trade area finally ended with establishing the great Arab free trade area، which had achieved only limited success.
The aim of this research to study and analyses the most important indicators of economic integration, which are represented by the percentage of Arab trade and intra-Arab investments as well as the indicators of the Monetary Union, as these indicators reflect the extent of the development in the area of full economic integration, macroeconomic indicators. In order to achieve the goal of research, the researcher used descriptive analysis method, depending on available data of indicators of the full economic integration. The research concludes some result, the most important which is weakness of intra-Arab trade and intra-Arab investments which are no more than (12%)، (3.4%) respectively. Despite of closeness of some monetary union indicators among Arab nations. But that doesn't mean a matter as there are no advance among Arab nations being achieved in intra-Arab trade and investment fields، considering that free trade area and common market are advanced steps according to Bela Balassa that Arab experience concerning economic integration has been based on .
Keywords : economic integration, monetary union, intra-trade, intra-investment.
The Islamic Republic of Iran and the Kingdom of Morocco A study of the political relations between the two countries after the Iranian revolution in 1979
Volume 12, Issue 39, Pages 43-74
The Iranian-Moroccan relations after the Iranian revolution of 1979 were characterized by instability, Due to the repetition of tension and political rupture between the two countries, Relations between the two countries broke off in 1981 and continued for 10 years until 1991, After vigorous diplomatic efforts by both sides, After which the relations will witness a situation of relative stability and cooperation that continued until 2009, To return to the state of tension and then cut ties against the backdrop of a number of accusations filed by Morocco justified it, Relations between the two countries have been cut off for seven years to resume again in late 2016, Its appeal lasted more than a year and a half until Morocco announced on May 1, 2018, that it would sever its political relations once again with Iran, Accusing the latter of interfering in its internal affairs, supporting the Polisario Front and cooperating with Algeria against Morocco.
Volume 12, Issue 39, Pages 75-121
In the ten years since the end of the Second World War, nuclear technology has spread to many parts of the world. Since a peaceful nuclear program can provide the means for a military nuclear program in multiple ways, it is clear that the rapid proliferation of nuclear technology will bring with it the proliferation of capability on the production of nuclear weapons.
Because of the enormous destructive power of these weapons, they contribute to the strengthening of the national security of the occupying power against any external aggression. The possession of such weapons is a deterrent to any state contemplating aggression against a nuclear-weapon state capable of using it to defend itself. That the state possessing nuclear weapons enjoys political power at the level of international relations, which allows it to establish balanced international relations based on mutual respect with other countries, which can be inferred from the differences of the treatment of some major powers such as the United States with the nuclear file of North Korea on the one hand, and the Iranian nuclear program on the other hand, where it depends negotiations with North Korea showing the possession of nuclear weapons while based used threats and intimidation with Iran, which has not found to possess nuclear weapons yet.
The Impact of Revolution on Constitution and International Relations (The January 25 revolution in Egypt is as a case study)
Volume 12, Issue 39, Pages 123-168
The success of revolution is not the inevitable result of the abolition of the constitutional document .The popular may lead to the disruption of the existing constitution until the stability of the situation in which the state passes and then it is canceled in order to be in line with the new situation as a result of the revolution . The best evidence of this is the revolution of 25 /January as it had an impact on some of the provisions of the 1971 constitution – especially those related to matters of governance – during the transitional period, which ended with the establishment of a new constitution for the country .
As for the impact of revolution on international relations , it can be said that the nature of bilateral relations between two states is not related to the existing political system , but rather is governed by the existing strategic relations and interests .This is true of the 25/ January revolution , although these relations witnessed a kind of anticipation at the beginning of the revolution , but they returned to normal as reflected in the Egyptian -American bilateral relations , as well as the peace agreement between Egypt and Israel .
Volume 12, Issue 39, Pages 169-194
The period following World War II witnessed a new and unconventional event which is the Cold War that broke out between the United States and the Soviet Union. One of the aspects of this war was the battle for and control of the areas of influence in the world. The 1950-1953 Korean War was one of the fields of that conflict.
As far as the Korean War is concerned, the research tackles Iraq's attitude toward this war and how it deals with it, specifically through the United Nations Organization, which has undertaken to find solutions to this issue. As is well known, Iraq was in the orbit of British politics, that was in turn following the United States' policy which has emerged as a superpower after the World War II. So Iraq and through its delegation to the United Nations supported all American resolutions condemning the Soviet Union and then the People's Republic of China as they helped North Korea, which created internal opposition to these positions, especially inside Iraqi council of representatives, where part of its deputies opposed this policy and considered it a departure from the Arab ranks.
In addition, Iraq has refrained from sending military troops to South Korea in implementation of the UN Security Council resolution to form a military force to protect South Korea, which the council counted as an aggrieved state under pressure from the United States.
Volume 12, Issue 39, Pages 195-221
The United States contributed after the second World War to the creation of a european security and defense identity under the NATO leadership, as well as the reconstruction of Europe's economy through the Marshall Plan. These American steps have succeeded in curbing the Soviet and thus starting to rebuild Europe in a different way from the ideas of previous period before the World War II, making capitalist Europe as a strategic partner for the United States in the same performance in tackling the changes in the world.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the socialist camp faltered, provoking a European debate over importance of the NATO's continued to European security.
European demands for security independence emerged away from the United States, but the crises like in the Balkans after the Cold War might the European could not cope with it while Americans want Europe to assume greater responsibility if it really wants to be actual partner.