The research aims to stand on the concept of citizenship in terms of its origin and historical development in Western thought first, then the attempts through which contemporary Islamic thought tried to set the concept and root it in Islamic societies and the most critical problems that accompanied the concept. The importance of the study lies in the emergence of many visions and intellectual theses that deal with the concept from different points of view, according to the different references and ideologies adopted by scholars and thinkers from the West in general or from Arab Muslims in particular. The research consists of two main requirements: the first requirement: is the concept of citizenship in contemporary political thought. The second requirement: is the concept of citizenship in Islamic thought and the most crucial problems that accompanied the concept. The research came out with a number of conclusions, the most important of which is that citizenship has a political value, and relative civil demand, and a phased one, as it is not an end in itself required by the state or the nation, but rather a transitional stage in which the state seeks to upgrade the individual from the stage of the psychological and cultural self to the legal self of rights, which constitutes a major building block in the cohesion of the structure of civil society. One of the most influential pillars in civil society is the value of objective and moral loyalty to the authority or to the State.