الكلمات الرئيسة : Iraq during Ottoman era
مجلة دراسات اقلیمیة,
السنة 10, العدد 34, الصفحة 257-281
The Ottomans rule South Iraq in an unsuitable way composed from difficult alliances unfamiliar with political authority (Al-muntafik, Khzael, Zubyid….) it was natural that those tribes would face the ruler in Basrah and Baghdad and those rulers were interested in collecting taxes to fill the treasure of the Porte to stay in their posts. They also interfered in isolate or a point the shyikhs of the some family. During four centuries, South of Iraq was a stage for armed operations between the state and the Arab tribes.
There fore, these tribes did not like the Ottoman state participating its wealth. Both parties in these wars lost money and men in which they might be invested in other places especially Arab Gulf Region which stayed for from the active ottoman control except Al-Ahsaa. These tribes made more then 50 revolts and took part in more then one hundred battles.